public administration

Government project targets exclusive use of OSS for all government agency websites in 2012

Title: Government project targets exclusive use of OSS for all government agency websites in 2012
Source: Open Source Observatory & Repository Europe
Publisher: European Comission
Date (published): 14/10/2011
Date (accessed): 17/10/2011
Type of information: blog post
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML)
"The government of Paraguay has embarked on an ambitious project with the aim to implement on an exclusive basis open source software (OSS) in all government agencies in 2012.

Nicolás Caballero, IT Coordinator for the Office of the President of the Republic of Paraguay was quoted by a local newspaper as saying: "The first and most evident aim is to save resources." He noted that the saved resources can be allocated to other areas and that assessments performed by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare foresee savings of about $ 4 million (approx. € 2.9 million) for the ministry alone.

Mr Caballero added that the objective is to achieve full OSS use in 2012 and to attain technological autonomy where the government decides what software is to be used and how. He ensured that with the implementation of OSS, spending will be restricted to the training of civil servants. The Public Administration Secretariat and the National Career Development Service (SNPP) are tasked with carrying out training.

The project is being led by 25 people, excluding experts and all stakeholders involved.

Mr Caballero concluded by stressing that similar initiatives have been spreading in various countries worldwide. He mentioned the case of the French Police, which use 85 000 computers with free software (word processing, spreadsheet processing, etc)."

World e-Parliament Report 2010

Title: World e-Parliament Report 2010
Pages: 264 pp.
ISBN: 978-92-1-123187-8, 978-92-9142-448-1
Publisher: United Nations,
Date (published): 10/06/2010
Date (accessed): 13/06/2010
Type of information: report
Language: English, French
On-line access: yes (pdf)
The United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union just released the World e-Parliament Report 2010. The Report, prepared by the Global Centre for ICT in Parliament, intends to help legislatures to harness the potential benefits of ICT for their work and establish key goals and priorities for exploiting this valuable resource. While providing evidence of the complexities of e-parliament, the Report suggests ways to overcome some of the obstacles to the effective use of technology in parliamentary settings.

The findings presented in the World e-Parliament Report 2010 are based on the results of the Global Survey of ICT in Parliaments conducted by the Global Centre for ICT in Parliament between July and November 2009, to which 134 parliamentary assemblies responded.
The rapid growth of information and communication technologies (ICT) is changing not only the economic, social and political landscape around the world, but also the environment within which parliaments operate and it affects how they are perceived by the citizenry. In both developed and developing countries, parliaments are exploring ways to use technology to strengthen democracy and encourage political participation.
In 2008, the first edition of the World e-Parliament Report established a baseline of how parliaments were using ICT to help them fulfil their responsibilities and to connect to their constituencies. The World e-Parliament Report 2010 builds on that groundbreaking work and evaluates the progress accomplished by parliaments during the intervening two years in their efforts to use modern technologies to strengthen their institutional role. The 2010 Report further provides a methodology that can serve as a tool for parliaments to improve their performance in key areas of e-Parliament.

Foreword and Acknowledgments
Executive summary
Introduction (784 kb)
Chapter 1 - The Continuing Impact of ICT on the World of Parliaments
Chapter 2 - Communication between Parliaments and Citizens
Chapter 3 - Becoming an Open Parliament: Evolving Standards for Transparency and Accessibility
Chapter 4 - Envisioning, Planning, and Managing for e-Parliament
Chapter 5 - Systems and Standards for Parliamentary Documents
Chapter 6 - Library and Research Services
Chapter 7 - Responsive and Robust Technical Infrastructures
Chapter 8 - The State of e-Parliament in 2010
Chapter 9 - Cooperation and Collaboration
Chapter 10 - The e-Parliament Framework 2010 - 2020
Major Findings, Recommendations, and Conclusions
Boxes and figures

United Nations e-Government Survey 2010: Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis

Title: United Nations e-Government Survey 2010: Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis
Author Editor:
Pages: 140 pp.
ISBN: 978-92-1-123183-0
Publisher: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Date (published): 13/04/2010
Date (accessed): 06/05/2010
Type of information: research report
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML and pdf)
The 2010 United Nations e-Government Survey: Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis was completed in December 2009 and launched in early 2010. The report presented various roles for e-government in addressing the ongoing world financial and economic crisis. The public trust that is gained through transparency can be further enhanced through the free sharing of government data based on open standards. The ability of e-government to handle speed and complexity can also underpin regulatory reform. While technology is no substitute for good policy, it may give citizens the power to question the actions of regulators and bring systemic issues to the fore. Similarly, e-government can add agility to public service delivery to help governments respond to an expanded set of demands even as revenues fall short. Since the last edition of the survey, in 2008, governments have made great strides in development of online services, especially in middle-income countries. The costs associated with telecommunication infrastructure and human capital continue to impede e-government development. However, effective strategies and legal frameworks can compensate significantly, even in least developed countries. Those who are able to harness the potential of expanded broadband access in developed regions and mobile cellular networks in developing countries to advance the UN development agenda have much to gain going forward.

Foreword, acknowledgements and contents
Part 1: Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis
Chapter 1: Stimulus funds, transparency and public trust
Chapter 2: Roles for e-government in financial regulation and monitoring
Chapter 3: E-service delivery and the MDGs
Part 2: The state of e-government around the world
Chapter 4: World e-government rankings
Chapter 5: Citizen empowerment and inclusion
Chapter 6: Measuring e-government
Notes and references
Statistical annex

E-Readiness Assessment of Enugu State, Nigeria

Title: E-Readiness Assessment of Enugu State, Nigeria
Authors: C. Okoronkwo Matthew and N. Agu Monica
Pages: 10 pp.
ISSN: 1819-334x
Source: Asian Journal of Information Management, Volume 4(1), 2010
Publisher: Science Alert
Date (published): 17/03/2010
Date (accessed): 28/04/2010
Type of information: peer-reviewed article
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML and pdf)
This study looks at the e-readiness of Enugu State (ES), Nigeria as the government is making efforts to digitalize government administration processes to provide the citizens access to governance information through the establishment of portal which test run was just completed. The study provides assessment guide; a mirror which governments, should use to determine the direction and milestones. It provides the e-readiness measuring instruments and showcases the outcome of application of the assessment methodology through a study carried out in the State. The main objective was to raise the awareness of stakeholders on the key issues in e-governance implementation to ensure rich content, sustainable service management and efficient use of ICT in support of current efforts in institutional, economic and administrative reform programmes.

E-Gov Versus Open Gov: The Evolution of E-Democracy

Title: E-Gov Versus Open Gov: The Evolution of E-Democracy
Author: Jenn Gustetic
Pages: 10 pp.
Publisher: Phase One Consulting Group
Date (published): 11/12/2009
Date (accessed): 12/12/2009
Type of information: research report
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML)
How is the Obama Administration’s Open Government (Open Gov) initiative different from the Bush Administration’s E-government (E-gov) initiative? There are many people who use the two terms interchangeably but this paper argues that although they are distinct initiatives in the United States, they are also part of the same E-democracy maturity continuum. Thus while they should not be handled totally separately, they should not be combined either. This paper provides a short history and terminology discussion and then compares and contrasts the two initiatives.

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Global Dialogue on Exploring the Results of Governmental Open Source Software Policies: Brazil Experience

Title: Global Dialogue on Exploring the Results of Governmental Open Source Software Policies: Brazil Experience
Publisher: The World Bank Group
Date (published): 17/12/2009
Date (accessed): 12/12/2009
Type of information: conference webcast
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML and media files)
This learning and knowledge sharing event was organized by the Global Information and Communication Technologies Department (GICT) Department and the ECSPE e-Government Practice Group (e-Gov PG) of the World Bank, in collaboration with the e-Development Thematic Group (e-Dev TG), to explore the results of Open Source policy initiatives and identify lessons learned, and facilitate knowledge transfer among the interested countries and developers of free/libre open source software (FLOSS) solutions.

Currently, 40 client countries are implementing large-scale projects to support public financial management (PFM) reforms through a lengthy and costly process of modernizing existing infrastructure or developing new information system solutions as they seek to improve effectiveness of their PFM practices, reduce corruption, and ensure sustainability of information and communication technology solutions. Similarly, a large number of education, health and other sector projects with substantial ICT components are being implemented in all regions. These meetings are designed to promote knowledge and experience-sharing across member countries to better understand the challenges and opportunities in using FLOSS in public sector reform projects.

Outsourcing the State: Public-Private Partnerships and Information Technologies in India ?

Title: Outsourcing the State: Public-Private Partnerships and Information Technologies in India ?
Authors: Renee Kuriyan, Isha Ray
Pages: 11 pp.
ISSN: 0305-750X
Source: World Development, Volume 37, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 1663-1673
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Date (published): 17/06/2009
Date (accessed): 12/11/2009
Type of information: research article
Language: English
On-line access: yes (pdf)
This paper examines public–private partnerships (PPPs) for development through the example of telecenters in two Indian states. How might a developmental state position itself with respect to civil society under a PPP model of service delivery? We find that each state’s political economy is reflected in its PPP strategy, but that in both states the emerging middle classes rather than the poor benefit most from ongoing telecenter projects. Outsourcing development services to private entities need not ‘‘privatize” the state but does alter the way in which citizens ‘‘see” the state. Service delivery through telecenters becomes a symbol of government efficiency and responsiveness.

Understanding Adoption of e-Government: Principals, Agents and Institutional Dualism

Title: Understanding Adoption of e-Government: Principals, Agents and Institutional Dualism
Authors: Richard Heeks and Rita Santos
Pages: 27 pp.
ISBN: Richard Heeks & Rita Santos
Source: iGovernment Working Paper Series, Paper No. 19
Publisher: Centre for Development Informatics, Institute for Development Policy and Management, SED
Date (published): 31/07/2009
Date (accessed): 05/10/2009
Type of information: research paper
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML and pdf and zipped MS Word)
e-Government innovations are of central importance to the public sector. Yet they face the challenge of adoption: getting the new e-government system implemented and used. This paper builds from principal-agent ideas to understand this process. It proposes a model which sees e-government innovation designers (as principals) might use one-, two-, or three-party enforcement mechanisms in seeking to get adopters (as agents) to comply with their intended role. But it also sees this as taking place within a context of institutional forces that extends basic ideas about principal and agent. The model is supported by its application to the case study of a large-scale financial monitoring e-government system.

This also supports the proposition that enforcement mechanisms act within an institutional context that can best be understood in terms of "institutional dualism". This conceives public innovations as forcing an intersection – quite possibly a conflict – between two different "institutional systems"; that of the designers and that of the adopters. The outcome of this intersection and, hence, the outcome of e-government innovations will be complex, moving well beyond simple principal-agent models, and best seen as a journey rather than a destination. Institutional dualism explains actions that reinforce one or other institutional system. But it also explains opportunities for agency and change that further our understanding of e-government adoption.

See also:
Educator's guide to student questions for this paper

Open Data is Civic Capital: Best Practices for "Open Government Data"

Title: Open Data is Civic Capital: Best Practices for "Open Government Data"
Author: Joshua Tauberer
Date (published): version 1.1 dated 7/20/2009
Date (accessed): 13/09/2009
Type of information: scholarly monograph
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML)
"This document is a best practices guide for governments embracing the notion of "open data". It discusses why open government data is beneficial to society, i.e. how it is civic capital, and what kinds of technological considerations must be made when making government data open."
"The goal was 1) to motivate why open government data isn’t just an ideological issue but actually makes society more powerful, and can really make the world a better place, and 2) to outline some suggested priorities and recommendations for open government data, drawing on the recommendations of a number of past groups (e.g. the 8 Principles of Open Government Data, and others)"

Publishing Open Government Data

Title: Publishing Open Government Data
Authors: Daniel Bennett, Adam Harvey
Source: The W3C eGovernment Interest Group
Publisher: The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Date (published): 08/09/2009
Date (accessed): 13/09/2009
Type of information: W3C Working Draft
Language: English
On-line access: yes (HTML)
Every day, governments and government agencies publish more data on the Internet. Sharing this data enables greater transparency; delivers more efficient public services; and encourages greater public and commercial use and re-use of government information. Some governments have even created catalogs or portals (such as to make it easy for the public to find and use this data.

Although the reasons may vary, the logistics and practicalities of opening government data are the same. To help governments open and share their data, the W3C eGov Interest Group has developed the following guidelines. These straightforward steps emphasize standards and methodologies to encourage publication of government data, allowing the public to use this data in new and innovative ways.

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